Request a Free Counselling Session from our Expert Mentor

Get Free NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes, set up after careful examination by profoundly experienced Science instructors, at Swastik Classes. NCERT Solutions are extremely helpful while doing your homework and also for your Class 10 board exam preparation. We have given bit-by-bit answers to every one of the questions given in the NCERT class 10 Science course reading. This solution is free to download and the questions are systematically arranged for your ease of preparation and in solving different types of questions. To score good marks, students are encouraged to get familiar with these NCERT solutions of Chapter 6 Life Processes.

Download PDF of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes

Answers of Physics NCERT solutions for class 10 Chapter 6 Life Processes

Chapter-6

Life Processes

Intext Questions

Question 1:

Why is diffusion insufficient to meet the oxygen requirements of multi-cellular organisms like humans?

Answer

Multicellular organisms such as humans possess complex body designs. They have specialised cells and tissues for performing various necessary functions of the body such as intake of food and oxygen. Unlike unicellular organisms, multicellular cells are not in direct contact with the outside environment. Therefore, diffusion cannot meet their oxygen requirements.

Question 2:

    What criteria do we use to decide whether something is alive? 

Answer

Any visible movement such as walking, breathing, or growing is generally used to decide whether something is alive or not. However, a living organism can also have movements, which are not visible to the naked eye. Therefore, the presence of life processes is a fundamental criterion that can be used to decide whether something is alive or not.

Question 3:

   What are outside raw materials used for by an organism?

Answer

An organism uses outside raw materials mostly in the form of food and oxygen. The raw materials required by an organism can be quite varied depending on the complexity of the organism and its environment.

Question 4:

    What processes would you consider essential for maintaining life? 

Answer

Life processes such as nutrition, respiration, transportation, excretion, etc. are essential for maintaining life.

Question 1:

What are the differences between autotrophic nutrition and heterotrophic nutrition? 

Answer

Autotrophic nutritionHeterotrophic nutrition
(i)Food is synthesised from simple inorganic raw materials such as CO2 and water.(i)Food is obtained directly or indirectly from autotrophs. This food is broken down with the help of enzymes.
(ii)Presence of green pigment (chlorophyll) is necessary.(ii)No pigment is required in this type of nutrition.
(iii)Food is generally prepared during day time.(iii)Food can be prepared at all times.
(iv)All green plants and some bacteria have this type of nutrition.(iv)All animals and fungi have this type of nutrition.

Question 2:

   Where do plants get each of the raw materials required for photosynthesis? 

Answer

The following raw materials are required for photosynthesis:

  • The raw material CO2 enters from the atmosphere through stomata.
  • Water is absorbed from the soil by the plant roots.
  • Sunlight, an important component to manufacture food, is absorbed by the chlorophyll and other green parts of the plants.

Question 3:

   What is the role of the acid in our stomach?

Answer

The hydrochloric acid present in our stomach dissolves bits of food and creates an acidic medium. In this acidic medium, enzyme pepsinogen is converted to pepsin, which is a protein-digesting enzyme.

Question 4:

   What is the function of digestive enzymes? 

Answer

Digestive enzymes such as amylase, lipase, pepsin, trypsin, etc. help in the 

breaking down of complex food particles into simple ones. These simple

particles can be easily absorbed by the blood and thus transported to all the cells of the body.

Question 5:

   How is the small intestine designed to absorb digested food? 

Answer

The small intestine has millions of tiny finger-like projections called villi. These villi increase the surface area for more efficient food absorption. Within these villi, many blood vessels are present that absorb the digested food and carry it to the blood stream. From the blood stream, the absorbed food is delivered to each and every cell of the body.

Enlarged view of a villusv3 gCh5PhTwCAYebdaihuA9Q6FOZy6jlJ3rX5 7xJToFwvoZprnArsBTyni0XPK8bcCt8DzTuzMC12hflDdYEJI5KUAY9NT6PQ6dDgI

Question 1:

What advantage over an aquatic organism does a terrestrial organism have with regard to obtaining oxygen for respiration?

Answer

Terrestrial organisms take up oxygen from the atmosphere whereas aquatic animals need to utilize oxygen present in the water. Air contains more O2 as compared to water. Since the content of O2 in air is high, the terrestrial animals do not have to breathe faster to get more oxygen. Therefore, unlike aquatic animals, terrestrial animals do not have to show various adaptations for better gaseous exchange.

Question 2:

What are the different ways in which glucose is oxidized to provide energy in various organisms? 

Answer

Glucose is first broken down in the cell cytoplasm into a three-carbon molecule called pyruvate. Pyruvate is further broken down by different ways to provide energy.

The breakdown of glucose by different pathways can be illustrated as follows.rGycqR1UephVD OC2kHsG4wCp6Bl2vsVeO1lJE bKExVrR3N5X76s1 g7lPV0e3wEKIIE9H4uFyzZMt4ZXcIRP4C9piK55Pd6mUd LNnXSgIxxzMUY3r4 G479 jgNM7hw7mk

In yeast and human muscle cells, the breakdown of pyruvate occurs in the absence of oxygen whereas in mitochondria, the breakdown of pyruvate occurs in the presence of oxygen.

Question 3:

   How is oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in human beings?

Answer

Haemoglobin transports oxygen molecules to all the body cells for cellular respiration. The haemoglobin pigment present in the blood gets attached to four O2 molecules that are obtained from breathing. It thus forms oxyhaemoglobin and the blood becomes oxygenated. This oxygenated blood is then distributed to all the body cells by the heart. After giving away O2 to the body cells, blood takes away CO2 which is the end product of cellular respiration. Now the blood becomes de-oxygenated.

Since haemoglobin pigment has less affinity for CO2, CO2 is mainly transported in the dissolved form. This de-oxygenated blood gives CO2 to lung alveoli and takes O2 in return.
beDr rAiFBUR3SJJtWQUTP7Kj5MdiGxJrjY81u6TGt8iKic9kZ2r HMfmVd0v8MaKEr6ZJ QrQ8d 8EkTjHjEdszGXa62xrZftT5JbEiCjnv

Transportation of O2 and CO2 in blood

Question 4:

How are the lungs designed in human beings to maximize the area for exchange of gases? 

Answer

The exchange of gases takes place between the blood of the capillaries that surround the alveoli and the gases present in the alveoli. Thus, alveoli are the site for exchange of gases. The lungs get filled up with air during the process of inhalation as ribs are lifted up and diaphragm is flattened.

The air that is rushed inside the lungs fills the numerous alveoli present in the lungs.

Each lung contains 300-350 million alveoli. These numerous alveoli increase the surface area for gaseous exchange making the process of respiration more efficient.

Question 1:

What are the components of the transport system in human beings? What are the functions of these components?

Answer

The main components of the transport system in human beings are the heart, blood, and blood vessels.

  • Heart pumps oxygenated blood throughout the body. It receives deoxygenated blood fromthe various body parts and sends this impure blood to the lungs for oxygenation.
  • Being a fluid connective tissue, blood helps in the transport of oxygen, nutrients, CO2, and nitrogenous wastes.
  • The blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries) carry blood either away from the heart to various organs or from various organs back to the heart.

Question 2:

Why is it necessary to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in mammals and birds? 

Answer

Warm-blooded animals such as birds and mammals maintain a constant body temperature by cooling themselves when they are in a hotter environment and by warming their bodies when they are in a cooler environment. Hence, these animals require more oxygen (O2) for more cellular respiration so that they can produce more energy to maintain their body temperature.

Thus, it is necessary for them to separate oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood, so that their circulatory system is more efficient and can maintain their constant body temperature.

Question 3:

What are the components of the transport system in highlyorganised plants? 

Answer

In highly organised plants, there are two different types of conducting tissues − xylem and phloem. Xylem conducts water and minerals obtained from the soil (via roots) to the rest of the plant. Phloem transports food materials from the leaves to different parts of the plant body.

Question 4:

   How are water and minerals transported in plants? 

Answer

The components of xylem tissue (tracheids and vessels) of roots, stems, and leaves are interconnected to form a continuous system of water-conducting channels that

reaches all parts of the plant. Transpiration creates a suction pressure, as a result of which water is forced into the xylem cells of the roots. Then there is a steady movement of water from the root xylem to all the plant parts through the interconnected water-conducting channels.
QY2eF9bII cYTlkHwZoguzRpafW5LkwF9db

Components of xylem tissue

Question 5:

   How is food transported in plants?

Answer

Phloem transports food materials from the leaves to different parts of the plant body. The transportation of food in phloem is achieved by utilizing energy from ATP. As a result of this, the osmotic pressure in the tissue increases causing water to move into it. This pressure moves the material in the phloem to the tissues which have less pressure. This is helpful in moving materials according to the needs of the plant. For example, the food material, such as sucrose, is transported into the phloem tissue using ATP energy.

Question 1:

    Describe the structure and functioning of nephrons.

Answer

Nephrons are the basic filtering units of kidneys. Each kidney possesses a large number of nephrons, approximately 1-1.5 million. The main components of the nephron are glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, and a long renal tubule.

Structure of a nephron:
OF9ncIXepSy LR d52oTdlMXn97sHAxjYHyXfQDsz5ia3SnGscenOczHGbGjeD5SUsKl8rGP

Functioning of a nephron:

  • The blood enters the kidney through the renal artery, which branches into many capillariesassociated with glomerulus.
  • The water and solute are transferred to the nephron at Bowman’s capsule.
  • In the proximal tubule, some substances such as amino acids, glucose, and salts are selectively reabsorbed and unwanted molecules are added in the urine.
  • The filtrate then moves down into the loop of Henle, where more water is absorbed.
  • From here, the filtrate moves upwards into the distal tubule and finally to the collecting duct. Collecting duct collects urine from many nephrons.
  • The urine formed in each kidney enters a long tube called ureter. From ureter, it gets transported to the urinary bladder and then into the urethra.

Question 2:

   What are the methods used by plants to get rid of excretory products?

Answer

Plants can get rid of excess water by transpiration. Waste materials may be stored in the cell vacuoles or as gum and resin, especially in old xylem. It is also stored in the leaves that later fall off.

Question 3:

   How is the amount of urine produced regulated?

Answer

The amount of urine produced depends on the amount of excess water and dissolved wastes present in the body. Some other factors such as the habitat of an organism and hormones such as Anti- diuretic hormone (ADH) also regulate the amount of urine produced.

Exercises

Question 1:

The kidneys in human beings are a part of the system for

  1. nutrition.
  2. respiration.
  3. excretion.
  4. transportation.

Answer

(c) In human beings, the kidneys are a part of the system for excretion.

Question 2:

The xylem in plants are responsible for

  1. transport of water.
  2. transport of food.
  3. transport of amino acids.
  4. transport of oxygen.

Answer

(a) In a plant, the xylem is responsible for transport of water.

Question 3:

The autotrophic mode of nutrition requires

  1. carbon dioxide and water.
  2. chlorophyll.
  3. sunlight.
  4. all of the above.

Answer

(d) The autotrophic mode of nutrition requires carbon dioxide, water, chlorophyll and sunlight.

Question 4:

The breakdown of pyruvate to give carbon dioxide, water and energy takes place in

  1. cytoplasm.
  2. mitochondria.
  3. chloroplast.
  4. nucleus.

Answer

  1. The breakdown of pyruvate to give carbon dioxide, water and energy takes place in mitochondria.

*Question 5:

How are fats digested in our bodies? Where does this process take place?

Answer

Fats are present in the form of large globules in the small intestine. The small intestine gets the secretions in the form of bile juice and pancreatic juice respectively from the liver and the pancreas. The bile salts (from the liver) break down the large fat globules into smaller globules so that the pancreatic enzymes can easily act on them. This is referred to as emulsification of fats. It takes place in the small intestine.

Question 6:

   What is the role of saliva in the digestion of food?

Answer

Saliva is secreted by the salivary glands, located under the tongue. It moistens the food for easy swallowing. It contains a digestive enzyme called salivary amylase, which breaks down starch into sugar.

Question 7:

What are the necessary conditions for autotrophic nutrition and what are its by-products? 

Answer

Autotrophic nutrition takes place through the process of photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide, water, chlorophyll pigment, and sunlight are the necessary conditions required for autotrophic nutrition. Carbohydrates (food) and O2 are the by-products of photosynthesis.
fah4s2RMjXCZX 3yHZfQ1PrKy7tPyiwmdrKwf4ovIqDKgXb72eEA8tE9A00xoe7c1SFzpyU txQpbsL7lsxp2EyJqqI yMMGaSBZlYj8RIkV9y5s01vEFNRvqViARlrdhkir3nU

*Question 8:

What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? Name some organisms that use the anaerobic mode of respiration.

Answer

Aerobic respirationAnaerobic respiration
1.It occurs in the presence of O2.1.It occurs in the absence of O2.
2.It involves the exchange of gases between the organism and the outside environment.2.Exchange of gases is absent.
3.It occurs in cytoplasm and mitochondria.3.It occurs only in cytoplasm.
4.It always releases CO2 and H2O.4.End products vary.
5.It yields 36 ATPs.5.It yields only 2 ATPs.

Anaerobic respiration occurs in the roots of some waterlogged plants, some parasitic worms, animal muscles, and some micro-organisms such as yeasts.

Question 9:

    How are the alveoli designed to maximise the exchange of gases?

Answer

The alveoli are the small balloon-like structures present in the lungs. The walls of the alveoli consist of an extensive network of blood vessels. Each lung contains 300−350 million alveoli, making it a total of approximately 700 million in both the lungs. The alveolar surface when spread out covers about 80 m2 area. This large surface area makes the gaseous exchange more efficient.

8zUGbUqkqQdv8fpGfjqEmhgMmwOiclCVU5m3fu4piI1QCHOOc8unBsxcrlOSOJMbi0t 4pjqdm LAaNrnM4tYY2wgwVCL knXviqs3qcaG98M4koLSvbdWUXWjYSdK D2 c0U0o

Alveoli and capillaries

*Question 10:

   What would be the consequences of a deficiency of haemoglobin in our bodies? 

Answer

Haemoglobin is the respiratory pigment that transports oxygen to the body cells for cellular respiration. Therefore, deficiency of haemoglobin in blood can affect the oxygen supplying capacity of blood. This can lead to deficiency of oxygen in the body cells. It can also lead to a disease called anaemia.

*Question 11:

   Describe double circulation in human beings. Why is it necessary?

Answer

The human heart is divided into four chambers − the right atrium, the right ventricle, the left atrium, and the left ventricle.

Flow of blood in the heart:

  • The heart has superior and inferior vena cava, which carries de-oxygenated blood from the upper and lower regions of the body respectively and supplies this de-oxygenated blood to the right atrium of the heart.

kA1K3lFFmBfYt28bKQZbrO589pSxwmE4zKCh6BH9J6cqU4OwDGJqnep1nCX6vGoGd9Qe9qefn9bsNS3gqP9jWZaM nCNwCdBZpowjFQw0ZBcF6ZAjw

Flow of blood in the human heart

  • The right atrium then contracts and passes the de-oxygenated blood to the right ventricle, through an auriculo-ventricular aperture.
  • Then the right ventricle contracts and passes the de-oxygenated blood into the two pulmonary arteries, which pumps it to the lungs where the blood becomes oxygenated. From the lungs, the pulmonary veins transport the oxygenated blood to the left atrium of the heart.
  • Then the left atrium contracts and through the auriculo-ventricular aperture, theoxygenated blood enters the left ventricle.

The blood passes to aorta from the left ventricle. The aorta gives rise to many arteries that distribute the oxygenated blood to all the regions of the body.

4D9ikC5ruisTy5NhJp2YpuIMNMSuYl ZSiYiPuAi5ZIDS IveLE6urDht2GWPHyS4ktkXZ72K6jh8g7YtGziQfrH5YDQ C pHhNEYVuprgIp3pPHQ6Ir7wsliaRQfXlVwol0OI

Schematic diagram of blood circulation in humans

Therefore, the blood goes twice through the heart. This is known as double circulation.

Importance of double circulation:

The separation of oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood allows a more efficient supply of oxygen to the body cells. This efficient system of oxygen supply is very useful in warm-blooded animals such as human beings.

As we know, warm-blooded animals have to maintain a constant body temperature by cooling themselves when they are in a hotter environment and by warming their bodies when they are in a cooler environment. Hence, they require more O2 for more respiration so that they can produce more energy to maintain their body temperature. Thus, the circulatory system of humans is more efficient because of the double circulatory heart.

*Question 12:

What are the differences between the transport of materials in xylemand phloem? 

Answer:

Transport of materials in xylemTransport of materials in phloem
(i)Xylem tissue helps in the transport of water and minerals.(i)Phloem tissue helps in the transport of food.
(ii)Water is transported upwards from roots to all other plant parts.(ii)Food is transported in both upward and downward directions.
(iii)Transport in xylem occurs with the help of simple physical forces such as transpiration pull.(iii)Transport of food in phloem requires energy in the form of ATP.

Question 13:

Compare the functioning of alveoli in the lungs and nephrons in the kidneys with respect to their structure and functioning.

Answer

AlveoliNephron
StructureAlveoli are tiny balloon-like structures present inside the lungs.The walls of the alveoli are one cell thick and it contains an extensive network of blood capillaries.tDGghO3Gg8T7FiiVSHgzNiOM7zwcvVfcPpLjcTofhifxHY xU5C2X0HVYGo3BESJjYtQrdFunctionThe exchange of O2 and CO2 takes place between the blood of the capillaries that surround the alveoli and the gases present in the alveoli.beDr rAiFBUR3SJJtWQUTP7Kj5MdiGxJrjY81u6TGt8iKic9kZ2r HMfmVd0v8MaKEr6ZJ QrQ8d 8EkTjHjEdszGXa62xrZftT5JbEiCjnvAlveoli are the site of gaseous exchange.StructureNephrons are tubular structures present inside the kidneys.Nephrons are made of glomerulus, bowman’s capsule, and a long renal tube. It also contains a cluster of thin- walled capillaries.AoLSKXPZjOefi vesTfPfkMLq AF6t4Q22ZpuH8eyEoHXcv CTKQl6S7ZOPFFbgfX 7F6CRddqt8TBxAHUoPhz67LMgJvWwhfYGrpcUxWVlRmR0T9kqnZoTCjGMY amd2MK30v8Function(i) The blood enters the kidneys through the renal artery which branches into many capillaries in the glomerulus. The water and solute are transferred to the nephron at Bowman’s capsule. Then the filtrate moves through the proximal tubule and then down into the loop of henle. From Henle’s loop, filtrate passes into the distal tubule and then to the collecting duct. The collecting duct collects the urine from many nephrons and passes it to the ureter. During the flow of filtrate, some substances such as glucose, amino acids, and water are selectively re- absorbed.
OF9ncIXepSy LR d52oTdlMXn97sHAxjYHyXfQDsz5ia3SnGscenOczHGbGjeD5SUsKl8rGP(ii) Nephrons are the basic filtration unit.

Access Answers to Science NCERT Class 10 Chapter 6 Life Processes

Questions Page number 95

1. Why is diffusion insufficient to meet the oxygen requirements of multicellular organisms like humans?

Solution:

Multi-cellular organism’s like humans have very big body and require a lot of oxygen to diffuse into body quickly in order to meet the oxygen requirement. Diffusion is a slow process which will take a lot of time to circulate oxygen to all the body cells. Because of its slow nature diffusion is insufficient to meet the oxygen requirements of multicellular organisms like humans.

2. What criteria do we use to decide whether something is alive?

Solution:

Walking, breathing, growth and other visible changes can be used to determine whether something is alive or dead. However some living things will have changes that are not visible to our eye; Hence, presence of life process is a fundamental criteria to decide whether something is alive.

3. What are outside raw materials used for by an organism?

Solution:

Outside raw material is used by organism for food and oxygen. Raw materials requirement varies on the complexity of the organism and the environment it is living.

4. What processes would you consider essential for maintaining life?

Solution:

Life processes such as respiration, digestion, excretion, circulation and transportation are essential for maintain life.

Questions Page number 101

1. What are the differences between autotrophic nutrition and heterotrophic nutrition?

Solution:

Autotrophic NutritionHeterotrophic Nutrition
Organism prepare its own food and is not dependent on any other organism.Organism does not prepare its own food and dependent on other organism for food.
Food is prepared from CO2, water, sunlight.Food cannot be prepared from CO2, water, sunlight.
Chlorophyll is required for food preparationChlorophyll is not required for food preparation
Green plants and certain bacteria have autotrophic mode of nutrition.All the animals and fungi, most bacteria have heterotrophic mode of nutrition

2. Where do plants get each of the raw materials required for photosynthesis?

Solution:

Plants required the following raw material for photosynthesis

  1. CO2 is obtained from atmosphere through stomata
  2. Water is absorbed by plant roots from the soil.
  3. Sunlight is an essential raw material for photosynthesis
  4. Nutrients are obtained by soil by plant roots

3. What is the role of the acid in our stomach?

Solution:

HCl present in the stomach dissolves food particles and creates an acidic medium. In acidic environment protein digesting enzymes pepsinogen is converted into pepsin. HCl in the stomach also acts as protective barrier against many disease causing pathogens.

4. What is the function of digestive enzymes?

Solution:

Digestive enzymes breaks the complex food molecules into simpler ones. This will make the food absorption process easy and effective. Absorbed food is transported to all parts of the body by blood.

5. How is the small intestine designed to absorb digested food?

Solution:

Small intestine has small projections called as micro villi which increases the surface volume which make absorption more effective. Within the villi there are numerous blood vessels that absorb digested food and carry it to blood stream. Blood transports food to each part of our body.

Questions Page number 105

1. What advantage over an aquatic organism does a terrestrial organism have with regard to obtaining oxygen for respiration?

Solution:

Terrestrial organisms breathe by using atmospheric oxygen whereas aquatic organism take oxygen dissolved in water. Oxygen level is high in atmosphere when compared to oxygen in water. Hence terrestrial organism need not breathe fast to obtain organism whereas aquatic organisms need to breathe faster to get required oxygen.

2. What are the different ways in which glucose is oxidized to provide energy in various organisms?

Solution:

In cytoplasm Glucose is first broken down into two 3 carbon compounds called as pyruvate by the process known as Glycolysis. Further breakdown takes place in different organism by different processes.

NCERT Solution for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 - image 1

3. How is oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in human beings?

Solution:

Oxygen and Carbon-di-oxide is transported in human being via blood stream. Oxygen is carried to the cells whereas carbon-di-oxide is carried away from the cells. Exchange of gases takes place between the alveoli of lungs and the surrounding blood capillaries.  Oxygen is absorbed by the blood capillaries from the lungs alveoli by diffusion while carbon-dioxide is absorbed by the lungs alveoli from blood capillaries by diffusion.

4. How are the lungs designed in human beings to maximize the area for exchange of gases?

Solution:

  • The lungs is an important part of the body. The passage inside the lungs divides into smaller and smaller tubes, which finally terminate in balloon-like structures, called as alveoli.
  • The alveoli provide a surface where the exchange of gases can take place. The walls of the alveoli usually contains an extensive network of blood vessels. We know that, when we breathe in, we lift our ribs, flatten our diaphragm and chest cavity becomes larger.
  • Because of this action, air is sucked into the lungs and fills the expanded alveoli.
  • The blood brings the essential carbon dioxide from rest of the body and supply it to alveoli; the oxygen in the alveolar air is taken up by the blood in the alveolar blood vessels to be transported to the all other cells of the body. During the normal breathing cycle, when air is taken in and let out, the lungs always contain a residual volume of air so that there is sufficient time for oxygen to be absorbed and carbon dioxide to be released.

Questions Page number 110

1. What are the components of the transport system in human beings? What are the functions of these components?

Solution:

Heart, blood and blood vessels are the main components of transport system in human beings.

Functions of these components

Heart

Heart pumps oxygenated blood throughout the body. It receives deoxygenated blood from the various body parts and sends this impure blood to the lungs for oxygenation.

Blood

Blood transports oxygen, nutrients, CO2, and nitrogenous wastes.

Blood vessels

Blood vessels, arteries and veins carry blood to all parts of body.

2. Why is it necessary to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in mammals and birds?

Solution:

Mammals and birds are warm blooded animals which keep their body temperature constant irrespective of the environment they leave. This process require lot of oxygen for more cellular respiration so that warm blooded animals produce more energy to balance their body temperature. Hence it is very important for warm blooded animals to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to keep their circulatory system efficient.

3. What are the components of the transport system in highly organized plants?

Solution:

There are two types of conducting tissues in highly organized plants that carry out transport system 1) Xylem 2) phloem. Xylem conduct water and minerals from roots to rest of the plant parts. Similarly Phloem transports food materials from leaf to other parts of the plant.

4. How are water and minerals transported in plants?

Solution:

Xylems parts tracheids and vessels of roots, stems and leaves are interconnected to form a continuous system of water-conducting channels that reaches all parts of the plant. Transpiration creates a suction pressure which forces water into xylem cells of roots. After this, there will be a steady movement of water from the root xylem to all parts of the plant connected through conducting interconnected water-conducting channels.

5. How is food transported in plants?

Solution:

Food is transported in plants by a special organ called as phloem. Phloem transports food materials from leaf to different parts of a plant. Transportation of food in phloem is achieved by the expenditure of energy from ATP. This increases osmotic pressure in the tissue causing water to move. This pressure moves material in the Phloem to the tissues with less pressure. This is helping in transportation of food material as per the needs. Ex: Sucrose

Questions Page number 112

1. Describe the structure and functioning of nephrons

Solution:

Nephrons are the filtration units of the kidney which are large in numbers. Some substances in the initial filtrate, such as glucose, amino acids, salts and a major amount of water, are selectively re-absorbed as the urine flows along the tube.

Main components of Nephrons are

Glomerulus

Bowman’s capsule

Long renal Tube

Structure of Nephron

NCERT Solution for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 - image 2

Functioning of Nephron

  • The blood enters the kidney through the renal artery, which branches into many capillaries associated with glomerulus.
  • The water and solute are transferred to the nephron at Bowman’s capsule.
  • In the proximal tubule, some substances such as amino acids, glucose, and salts are selectively reabsorbed and unwanted molecules are added in the urine.
  • The filtrate then moves down into the loop of Henle, where more water is absorbed. From here, the filtrate moves upwards into the distal tubule and finally to the collecting duct. Collecting duct collects urine from many nephrons.
  • The urine formed in each kidney enters a long tube called ureter. From ureter, it gets transported to the urinary bladder and then into the urethra.

2. What are the methods used by plants to get rid of excretory products?

Solution:

Plants can get rid of excess water by transpiration.

For other wastes, plants use the fact that many of their tissues consist of dead cells, and that they can even lose some parts such as leaves. Many plant waste products are stored in cellular vacuoles. Waste products may be stored in leaves that fall off.

Other waste products are stored as resins and gums, especially in old xylem. Plants also excrete some waste substances into the soil around them.

3. How is the amount of urine produced regulated?

Solution:

Amount of urine produced depends on the amount of excess water and dissolved waste present in the body. Other factors may be environment and ADH hormone which regulates the production of urine.

Questions Page number 113

1. The kidneys in human beings are a part of the system for

(a) nutrition

(b) respiration.

(c) excretion.

(d) transportation

Solution:

Answer is (c) excretion

The excretory system of human beings (Fig. 6.13) includes a pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, a urinary bladder and a urethra. Kidneys are located in the abdomen, one on either side of the backbone. Urine produced in the kidneys passes through the ureters into the urinary bladder where it is stored until it is released through the urethra.

2. The xylem in plants are responsible for

(a) transport of water .

(b) transport of food.

(c) transport of amino acids.

(d) transport of oxygen.

Solution:

In plants Xylem is responsible for transport of water hence the answer is (a)

3. The autotrophic mode of nutrition requires

(a) carbon dioxide and water.

(b) chlorophyll.

(c) sunlight.

(d) all of the above.

Solution:

Autotrophic mode of nutrition requires carob-di-oxide, water, chlorophyll and sunlight from the preparation of food hence the answer is (d) all of the above.

4. The breakdown of pyruvate to give carbon dioxide, water and energy takes place in

(a) cytoplasm.

(b) mitochondria.

(c) chloroplast.

(d) nucleus

Solution:

The breakdown of pyruvate to give carbon dioxide, water and energy takes place in mitochondria. Hence the answer is (b) mitochondria

5. How are fats digested in our bodies? Where does this process take place?

Solution:

  • The small intestine is the place for complete digestion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. It receives the secretions of the liver and pancreas for this purpose.
  • The food coming from the stomach is usually acidic in nature and it has to be made alkaline so that pancreatic enzymes can act on it. Bile juice produced in the liver accomplish this process.
  • Fats are usually present in the intestine in the form of larger globules, which makes it difficult for enzymes to act on them. The bile salts helps in breaking down larger globules into smaller globules. The pancreas helps in secreting pancreatic juice, which contains enzymes like trypsin for digesting proteins and lipase for breaking down emulsified fats.
  • The walls of the small intestine contains glands, which secretes intestinal juice. The enzymes present in it finally converts the proteins to amino acids, complex carbohydrates into glucose and finally fats into fatty acids and glycerol.

6. What is the role of saliva in the digestion of food?

Solution:

Food we intake is complex in nature, if it is to be absorbed from the alimentary canal then it has to be broken into smaller molecules. This process is mainly done with the help of biological catalysts called enzymes. The saliva contains an enzyme called salivary amylase that breaks down starch, which is a complex molecule to give sugar. The food is mixed thoroughly with saliva and moved around the mouth while chewing the muscular tongue. Hence saliva plays a pivotal in digestion and absorption of food.

7. What are the necessary conditions for autotrophic nutrition and what are its byproducts?

Solution:

  • The energy and carbon requirements of the autotrophic organism is obtained by the process of photosynthesis.
  • It is defined as the process by which autotrophs take in substances from the outside surroundings and convert them into stored forms of energy.
  • This substance is taken in the form of carbon dioxide and water, which is converted into carbohydrates in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll.
  • The main purpose of carbohydrates is to provide energy to the plant. The carbohydrates are not utilized immediately; but they are stored in the form of starch, which serves as an internal energy reserve.
  • The stored energy can be used as and when required by the plant.

8. What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? Name some organisms that use the anaerobic mode of respiration?

Solution:

Aerobic respiration

  • The process takes place in the presence of free oxygen
  • The products of aerobic respiration are CO2, water and energy.
  • The first step of aerobic respiration (glycolysis) takes place in cytoplasm while the next step takes place in mitochondria.
  • The process of aerobic respiration takes place in all higher organisms.
  • In this process complete oxidation of glucose takes place.

Anaerobic respiration

  • The process takes place in the absence of the free oxygen.
  • The products of anaerobic respiration are ethyl alcohol, COand a little energy.
  • Even in anaerobic respiration, the first step takes place in cytoplasm while the next step takes place in mitochondria.
  • In this process the glucose molecules is incompletely broken down.
  • The process of anaerobic respiration takes place in lower organism like yeast, some species of bacteria and parasites like tapeworm.

9. How are the alveoli designed to maximize the exchange of gases?

Solution:

  • The lung is an important part of the body. The passage inside the lungs divides into smaller and smaller tubes, which finally terminate in balloon-like structures, called as alveoli.
  • The alveoli provide a surface where the exchange of gases can take place. The walls of the alveoli usually contains an extensive network of blood vessels. We know that, when we breathe in, we lift our ribs, flatten our diaphragm and chest cavity becomes larger.
  • Because of this action, air is sucked into the lungs and fills the expanded alveoli.
  • The blood brings the essential carbon dioxide from rest of the body and supply it to alveoli; the oxygen in the alveolar air is taken up by the blood in the alveolar blood vessels to be transported to the all other cells of the body. During normal breathing cycle, when air is taken in and let out, the lungs always contain a residual volume of air so that there is sufficient time for oxygen to be absorbed and carbon dioxide to be released.

10. What would be the consequences of a deficiency of hemoglobin in our bodies?

Solution:

Hemoglobin is a protein responsible for transportation of oxygen to the body cells for cellular respiration. Deficiency of Hemoglobin can affect the oxygen carrying capacity of RBC’S. This lead to lack of oxygen in our body cells. Hemoglobin deficiency leads to a disease called as anemia.

11. Describe double circulation of blood in human beings. Why is it necessary?

Solution:

Double circulation means, in a single cycle blood goes twice in the heart. The process helps in separating oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to maintain a constant body temperature.

The double circulatory system of blood includes

  • Pulmonary circulation
  • Systemic circulation.

Pulmonary circulation:

The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood into the lungs where it is oxygenated. The oxygenated blood is brought back to the left atrium, from there it is pumped into the left ventricle and finally blood goes into the aorta for systemic circulation.

Systemic circulation:

The oxygenated blood is pumped to various parts of the body from the left ventricle. The deoxygenated blood from different parts of the body passes through vena cava to reach right atrium. The right atrium transfers the blood into right ventricle.

12. What are the differences between the transport of materials in xylem and phloem?

Solution:

Transport of materials in XylemTransport of materials in phloem
Xylem tissue helps in the transport of water and minerals.Phloem tissue helps in the transport of food
Water is transported upwards from roots to all other plant parts.Food is transported in both upward and downward directions.

13. Compare the functioning of alveoli in the lungs and nephrons in the kidneys with respect to their structure and functioning.

Solution:

AlveoliNephrons
StructureStructure 
(i) Alveoli are tiny balloon-like structures present inside the lungs.(i) Nephrons are tubular structures present inside the kidneys.
(ii) The walls of the alveoli are one cell thick and it contains an extensive network of blood capillaries.(ii) Nephrons are made of glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, and a long renal tube.
FunctionFunction
(i) The exchange of Oand CO2 takes place between the blood of the capillaries that surround the alveoli and the gases present in the alveoli.(i) The blood enters the kidneys through the renal artery. The blood is entered here and the nitrogenous waste in the form of urine is collected by collecting duct.
(ii) Alveoli are the site of gaseous exchange.(ii) Nephrons are the basic filtration unit.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes

In the chapter, Life Processes, we get to learn about various factors that contribute to a being for its living. The chapter briefly discusses the different processes that are required to maintain and sustain life such as respiration, nutrition, transportation of materials and excretion of the digested food. The various modes of nutrition are discussed in detail such as autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition. A brief idea about the human digestion process right from the ingestion of food, food passage through the alimentary canal, food absorption, until the stage when digested food is ready to be excreted is explained.

Through this chapter, students are also enlightened with the process of respiration (which can either be aerobic or anaerobic) from inhalation to the breakdown of organic compounds due to the supply of energy in the form of ATP. In humans, the process of transportation of substances such as food, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and other materials is carried out by the circulatory system which is explained. The various constituents of the circulatory system such as blood, blood vessels, and the heart are also briefed.

The diverse functions of the excretory organs and its structure, in abstract, are shed light upon in this chapter. It also covers excretion in plants and the techniques plants use for excretion of waste products.

Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes

  • NCERT Solutions assist students to prepare hassle-free for the CBSE Class 10 board examination.
  • A step-by-step explanation is provided to students in this chapter to better understand concepts
  • Diagrams are provided wherever necessary to promote visual learning
  • Solutions provided are crisp and to the point, as expected in the board exams
  • Solutions to chapter 6 have been solved as per the CBSE blueprint adhering to the NCERT textbook.

Frequently Asked Questions on NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6

What are enzymes and its functions covered in the Chapter 6 of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science?

The biological molecules which speed up the rate of chemical reactions in a cell within a human body are called enzymes. They are very important in human life and have a wide range of functions in the human body. Large molecules are broken into smaller pieces by the enzymes which can be easily absorbed by the body. Enzymes help in binding two molecules and producing new molecules. The different forms of life processes like respiration and excretion are the work of enzymes in a body.

Explain the concept of Aerobic respiration covered in the Chapter 6 of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science.

1. The process occurs in the presence of oxygen.
2. CO2, water and energy are the products of aerobic respiration.
3. Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm first step followed by mitochondria in the second step.
4. Aerobic respiration takes place in all higher organisms.
5. The complete oxidation of glucose takes place in this process.


swc google search e1651044504923
2021 Result Highlight of Swastik Classes

NCERT Solutions Class 10 Science Chapters

  • Chapter 1 Chemical Reaction and equation
  • Chapter 2 Acid, Base and Salts
  • Chapter 3 Metals & Non-Metals
  • Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds
  • Chapter 5 Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Chapter 6 Life Processes
  • Chapter 7 Control and Coordination
  • Chapter 8 How do Organisms Reproduce
  • Chapter 9 Heridity
  • Chapter 10 Light, Reflection & Refraction
  • Chapter 11 Human Eye
  • Chapter 12 Electricity
  • Chapter 13 Magnetic effects of electric current
  • Chapter 14 Sources of Energy
  • Chapter 15 Environment

SSAT