At Swastik Classes, our subject matter specialists work hard to come out with NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science. The NCERT textbook exercise contains answers to all of the questions that were asked. In order to get a decent grade in class 8 social science, the solutions have been created using the theory and knowledge that is provided in the NCERT textbook. Geography, Civics, and History are the three subtopics that are covered in the NCERT answers for class 8 social science. 

The questions from all three sections have been answered with the necessary information. Please make sure you follow the NCERT answers for class 8 Math as well as the NCERT solutions for class 8 Science. Constructed by the SWC’s Academic staff



Imagine you are a painter living in the early twentieth century India trying to develop a “national” style of painting. What elements discussed in this chapter will form part of the style? Explain your choice.

Ans. The elements of paintings of my choice related with a national style of painting will be:

1. National Flag.

2. National symbols.

3. National Animals and National birds.

4. Some freedom fighters and national birds.

5. Some topics from Epic-Mahabharata, Shrimadbhagwad Geeta, Ramayana. 

6. Some topics related with Buddha’s life and Buddhism. 

7. Some topics related with Vardhman Mahavir and Jainism.

8. All Sikh gurus.

9. Some Sufi saints.

10. Some socio-religious reformers.

11. Some framers of Indians Constitution.

12. Historical buildings, historical temples, forest, tombs remain, sculptures, scenes from village temples, wells, tanks, streams, greenery lakes, gardens etc.


Q.1. Fill in the blanks:

a. The art form which observed carefully and tried to capture exactly what the eye saw is called______.

b. The style of painting which showed Indian landscape as quaint, unexplored land is called_____.

c. Paintings which showed the social lives of Europeans in India are called_______.

d. Paintings which depicted scenes from British imperial history and their victories are called ____.

Ans. a. Realism, b. picture square, c. portrait, d. painting.

Q.2. Point out which of the following were brought in with British art:

a. Oil painting

b. Miniature

c. Life size portrait painting

d. Use of perspective 

e. Mural art

Ans. a. Oil Painting: It was brought in with the British art. It is technique with which Indian artists were not familiar.

b. Miniatures: The technique already prevailed in India. Indian tradition of painting portraits in miniature.

c. Life-size portrait painting: It became popular during the British rule. Colonial portraits were life-size images that looked life-like and real. This new style of portraiture also served as an ideal means of displaying the lavish life style, wealth and status that the empire generated.

d. Use of perspective: This teachnique also became more popular during the colonial rule. It was a technique of art of drawing solid objects in their natural appearance and relation.

Q.3. Describe in your own words one painting from this chapter which suggests that the British were more powerful than Indians. How does the artist depict this?

Ans. Thomas Daniell and his nephew William Daniell were the most famous artist of picture square. They made many picture square landscapes. In most of their picture square, they showed ruins of the local buildings which were once grand buildings. The buildings remind us about our glorious past and remains of an ancient civilization that was now in runs. It was as if the decaying civilization would be changed and modernized and it would be done with the British help.

A scene of historic battle of Panipat is sketched. This painting was made by Francis Hayman in 1762. In it Lord Clive’s meeting Mir Jafar Nawab of Murshidabad is portrait to depict British supremacy in India. Later on this battle changed the course on Indian history and paved the way for the establishment of British Empire in India.

Q.4. Why did the scroll painters and potters come to Kalighat? Why did they begin to paint new themes?

Ans. a. Scroll painters and potter came to Kalighat on account of towns reasons: In Bengal, around the pilgrimage centre of the temple of Kalighat, local village scroll painters (called patuas) and petter (called kumors in Eastern India and kumhars in north India) began developing a new style of art. They moved from the surrounding villages into Calcutta in the early nineteenth century. This was a time when the city was expanding as a commercial and administrative centre.

b. The British colonial offices were coming up in new huge buildings and road were being built, markets were being established. The city appeared as a place of opportunity where people could come to make a new living. Villages’ artists too came and settled in the city in the hope of new patrons and new buyers of their art.

c. New trend with in Kalighat artist: 

i. After the 1840s, we saw a new bend within the Kalighat artist. Living in a society where values, tastes, social norms and customs were undergoing rapid changes Kalighat artist responded to the world around and produced paintings on social and political themes.

ii. Many of the late nineteenth century Kalighat paintings depict social life under British rule. Often the artists mocked at the changes they saw around, ridiculing the new tastes of those who spoke in English and adopted western habits dressed like Sahibs, smoked cigarettes or sat on chairs.

iii. They made fun of the westernized baboo, criticized the corrupt priests and warned against women moving out of their homes. They often expressed the anger of common people against the rich and the fear many people had dramatic changes of social norms.

Q.5. Why can we think of Raja Ravi Verma’s paintings as national?

Ans. Raja Ravi Verma of Travancore (Kerala): 

i. A brief introducing: Raja Ravi Verma was one of the first artists who tried to create a style that was both modern and national. Ravi Verma belong to the family of the Maharajas of Travancore in Kerala and was addressed as Raja.

ii. Verma painted themes from Indian Mythology; he mastered the realistic life study but pained themes from Indian Mythology. He dramatized on Canvas scene after scene from Ramayana and Mahabharata, drawing on the theatrical performances of witnessed during his tour of the Bombay presidency.

iii. Verma’s tone and the artistic work from the 1880s: Raja Verma’s mythological paintings became the rage among Indian prices and art collectors, who filled their place galleries with the works.

iv. Prepared a team of artists: Responding to the huge popular appeal of such paintings Ravi Verma decided to set up a picture production team and printing press of his religious painting were mass produced even the poor could now buy these cheap prints.


Q.6. In what way did the British history paintings in India reflect the attitudes of imperial conquerors?

Ans.1. The British history paintings in India reflect the attitudes of imperial conquerors: No doubt the English were imperialists in India. Their attitudes were of the imperial conquerors and rulers. They considered themselves superior to the Indian on every filed. The entire British history of paintings in India is a living proof of it. It reflects their attitudes of colonial and imperial conquests.

2. Painting history by the British:

a. One category of imperial art of the British called “history painting”. This tradition sought to dramatize on recreate various episode of British imperial history and enjoyed great prestige and popularity during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

b. British victories in India served as rich material for history painters in British. These printers drew on first hand sketches and accounts of travelers to depict for the British public a favourable image of British actions in India.

c. These paintings once again celebrated the British power, their victories, and their supremacy. One of their first of these history paintings was produced by Francis Hayman in 1762 and placed on public displays in the Vaunhal Gardens in the London.

d. The British had just defeated Sirajuddaulah in the famous Battle of Plassey and installed Mir Jafar as the Nawab of Murshidabad. It was a victory won through conspiracy and the traitor Mir Jafar was awarded the title of Nawab.

e. In the painting by Hayman this act of aggression and conquest is not depicted. It shows Lord Clive being welcomed by Mir Jafar and his troops after the Battle of Plassey.

Q.7. Why do you think some artists wanted to develop a national style of art?

Ans. I think some artists wanted to develop a national style of art due to following reasons:

i. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, a stronger convention was established between art and nationalism. Many painters now tried to develop a style that could be considered both modern and Indian.

ii. There was a huge popular appeal of Mythological stories. Paintings related with different scenes from the Mahabharata including (Shrimadbhagwad Geeta).

iii. Some Bengali painters artists felt that a genuine Indian style of painting had to draw inspiration from non-western and tradition and they tried to capture the spiritual essence of the East. So they broke away from the convention of oil painting and the realistic style and towards for inspiration to medieval Indian tradition of miniature painting and the ancient art of mural painting in the Ajanta Cave.

iv. There were some Indian artists and painters who felt that artists had to explore real life instead of illustrating ancient books and look for inspiration from living folk art and tribal designs of rather than ancient or medieval art forms. They accepted the challenges of the western artists who had been depicting Indians as inferior.

v. Some great nationalist notice the higher position provided to the British flag (The Union Jack) and felt their sentiments hurt. They wanted the paintings of Indian freedom fighters, great historical heroes, reformers and symbols directly related with India. A large number of the local painters produced a vast number of images of local plants and animals, historical buildings and monuments, festivals, processions, travelers and crafts etc.

Q.8. Why did some artists produce cheap popular prints? What influence would such prints have had on the minds of people who looked at them?

Ans.  i. Some artists produced cheap popular prints so that colour prints of religion paintings could be bought even by the poor people. For example when Raja Ram Verma of Travancore in Kerala come to know about the responding huge popular appeal of such painting (i.e., paintings on the theatrical performance of Mythological stories etc.) he (Mr. Verma) decided to set up a picture production team and printing press on the outskirt of Bombay.

ii. With the establishment of British power many of the local court lost their influence and wealth. They could no longer support painters and pay them to paint for the court. How could the artist earn a living? Many of them turned to the colonial cities, some turned in Bengal around the pilgrimage centre of the temple of the Kalighat, local village, scroll painters (called patuas) and potters (called kumors in Eastern India and Kumhars in North India) began developing a new style of the art. They moved from the surrounding villages in Calcutta in the early nineteenth century. They produced images of gods and goddesses. They painted these religious images. They painted pictures and painted them.

In large number and sold in the market initially the images were engraved in wooden blocks. The carved block was inked pressed against paper and then the woodcut prints that when produced covered coloured by hand. In this way copies could be provided from the same block.


Q.9. Look at any tradition of art in your locality. Find out how it has changed in the last 50 years, you may check who supports the artists, and who looks at their art. Remember to examine the changes in styles and themes.

Ans. Do it yourself.


The Academic staff at SWC has provided all of the NCERT Solutions for the Class 8 History Chapter 10 examination. Please be sure to check out our NCERT answers for other topics, such as the NCERT solutions for class 8 mathematics and the NCERT solutions for class 8 science.

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