At Swastik Classes, our subject matter specialists work hard to come out with NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science. The NCERT textbook exercise contains answers to all of the questions that were asked. In order to get a decent grade in class 8 social science, the solutions have been created using the theory and knowledge that is provided in the NCERT textbook. Geography, Civics, and History are the three subtopics that are covered in the NCERT answers for class 8 social science. 

The questions from all three sections have been answered with the necessary information. Please make sure you follow the NCERT answers for class 8 Math as well as the NCERT solutions for class 8 Science. Constructed by the SWC’s Academic staff



Imagine that your are involved in the Indian national movement. Based on your reading of this chapter, briefly discuss your preferred methods of struggle and your vision of a free India.

Ans. I would have preferred the Gandhian methods of struggle:

i. Satyagraha

ii. Non-cooperation

iii. Non-violence

iv. Disobedience of British goods and jobs.

My vision of free India would have been:

i. India would be federal, secular, liberal, socialistic country.

ii. The society of India free from rigidity of caste-system.

iii. Democratic system in the country.

iv. Promotion of Globalization and liberalization should be the aim.

v. No benefit to SC/ST or OBC in education. Merit should be awarded honestly.

vi. Common national welfare should be promoted.

Students can also access the class 8 Social Science notes from here. 


Q.1. Why were the people dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s?

Ans. The people were dissatisfied with British rule in 1870s and 1880s because:

a. They thought that the British were exercising control over the resources of India and the lives of its people.

b. The Arms Act which was passed in 1878, disallowing Indians from possessing arms.

c. Vernacular Press Act was also enacted in an effort to silence those who were critical of the government. The Act allowed the government to confiscate the assets of newspapers including their printing presses if the newspaper published anything that was objectionable.

Q.2. Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for?

Ans. The Indian National Congress wished to speak for the good of all countrymen. As through a newspaper report, we come to know that Badruddin Tyabji said that the Congress is composed of the representatives of all the different communities of India.

Q.3. What economic impact did the First World War have on India?

Ans. The First World War (1914-1918 A.D) had the following economic impact of India:

1. Rise in defense expenditure: The first World War altered the economic and political situation in India. It led to a huge rise in the defense expenditure of the Government of India.

2. Heavy Taxes: The government in turn increased taxes on individual incomes and business profits.

3. Rise in Prices: Increased military expenditure and the demands for war supplies led to a sleep rise in prices which created great difficulties for the common people.

4. Profit to Businessmen: On the other hand, businessmen grouped reaped fabulous profits from the war.

5. Rise of Industries: The war created demand for industrial goods and caused a decline of imports from other countries.

6. Fast Development: Indian industries expanded during the war, and Indian business groups began to demand greater opportunities for development.

Q.4. What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for?

Ans. In 1940, the Muslim League resolution “Independent States” for the Muslims in the North-Western and Eastern areas of the country. The resolution did not mention partition for Pakistan.


Q.5. Who were the Moderates? How did they propose to struggle against British rule?

Ans. Moderates were the leaders of the Congress who presented their demands to the British in a moderate way and they wanted gradual reforms. They aimed at better and friendly association with the British. The moderates included leaders like Surendranath Banerjee, Pherozeshah Mehta and Gopal Krishna GokhleProposed methods to struggle against the British government:

a. The demands were presented to the British through petitions, meetings, speeches and resolutions.

b. Their whole attitude was of reconciliation and not confrontation.

c. They would do nothing which would offend the British rulers.

Q.6. How was the politics of the Radicals within the Congress different from that of the Moderates?

Ans. The politics of the radicals within the Congress was different from that of the moderates as:

a. The radicals opposed the moderates’ policy of ‘petitions’ and ‘resolutions’.

They laid stress on self-reliance and constructive work.

b. Moderates wanted self-government or Swaraj within the British Empire. 

Radicals demanded ‘Swaraj’ from the British rule. The extremists advocated the radical methods of strikes and boycott for the fulfillment of their demands.

Q.7. Discuss the various forms that the Non-Cooperation Movement took in different parts of India. How did the people understand Gandhiji?

Ans. I. The Non-Cooperation movement gained momentum differently in different parts of India: 

a. In Kheda, Gujarat, Patidar peasants organized non-violent campaigns against the high land revenue demand of the British.

b. In coastal Andhra and interior Tamil Nadu, liquor shops were picketed.

c. In the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, tribals and poor peasants staged a number of “Forest Satyagrahas”, sometimes sending their cattle into forest without paying grazing fee.

d. In Sind, (now in Pakistan), Muslim traders and peasants were very enthusiastic about the Khilafat call.

e. In Bengal, the Khilafat-Non-Cooperation movement alliance gave enormous communal unity and strength to the national movement.

f. In Punjab, the Akali agitation of the Sikhs sought to remove corrupt mahants supported by the British from their gurudwaras.

g. In Assam, tea gardens labourers, shouting “Gandhi Maharaj Ki Jai” demanded in big increase in their wages.

II. The way in which the people understood Mahatma Gandhi:

Gandhi Ji was thought of by people as a messiah. Peasants were hopeful that Gandhiji wished to build their fight against Zamindars. For instance, at the end of a powerful movement, peasants of Pratapgarh in the United Provinces managed to stop illegal eviction of tenants but they felt it was Gandhiji who had won this demand for them.

Q.8. Why did Gandhiji choose to break the salt law?

Ans. According to salt law, the state had a monopoly on the manufacture and sale of salt. Mahatma Gandhi thought it was sinful to tax salt since it was such an essential item of our food.

Q.9. Discuss those developments of the 1937-47 period that led to the creation of Pakistan.

Ans.i. The provincial elections of 1937 seemed to have convinced the Muslim League that Muslims were a minority, and they would always have to play second fiddle in any democratic structure.

ii. The Congress’ failure to mobilize the Muslim masses in the 1930s allowed the League to widen its social support.

iii. In 1945, the talks between the Congress, the League, saw itself the sole spokesperson of India’s Muslims.

iv. The League success in the seats elections of 1946 was spectacular.

v. Muslim League persisted with its demand for Pakistan.

vi. Three-member mission sent by British cabinet suggested that India should remain united with autonomy for Muslim majority areas.

vii. However, the Congress and the Muslim League did not agree to the specific details.

All the above factors led to the creation of Pakistan.


Q.10. Find out the National Movement was organized in your city, district, area or state. Who participated in it and who let it? What did the movement in your area achieve?

Ans. Try it yourself.

Q.11. Find out more about the life and work of any two participants or leaders of the national movement and write a short essay about them. You may choose a person not mentioned in this chapter.

Ans. Try it yourself.

Conclusions of NCERT Solutions for class 8 History Chapter 11 – The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947

The Academic staff at SWC has provided all of the NCERT Solutions for the Class 8 History Chapter 11 examination. Please be sure to check out our NCERT answers for other topics, such as the NCERT solutions for class 8 mathematics and the NCERT solutions for class 8 science.

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