At Swastik Classes, our subject matter specialists work hard to come out with NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science. The NCERT textbook exercise contains answers to all of the questions that were asked. In order to get a decent grade in class 8 social science, the solutions have been created using the theory and knowledge that is provided in the NCERT textbook. Geography, Civics, and History are the three subtopics that are covered in the NCERT answers for class 8 social science. 

The questions from all three sections have been answered with the necessary information. Please make sure you follow the NCERT answers for class 8 Math as well as the NCERT solutions for class 8 Science. Constructed by the SWC’s Academic staff



Q.1. Match the following:

i. Ryot Village

ii. Mahal Peasant

iii. Nij Cultivation on ryot’s land

iv. ryoti Cultivation on planter’s own land


i. Ryot Peasant

ii. Mahal Village

iii. Nij Cultivation on planter’s own land

iv. ryoti Cultivation on ryot’s land

Q.2. Fill in the blanks:

a) Growers of woad in Europe saw______ as a crop which would provide competition to their earnings.

b) The demand for indigo increased in late eighteenth century because of ______

c) The international demand for indigo was effected by the discovery of______

d) The Champaran Movement was against ________

Ans. (a) woad, (b) industrial revolution, (c) woad, (d) indigo planters.


Q.3. Describe the main features of the Permanent Settlement.

Ans. The main features of the Permanent Settlement were:

i. The rajas and taluqdars were recognized as zamindars.

ii. They were asked to collect rent from the peasants and pay revenue to the Company. The amount to be paid was fixed permanently.

iii. It encouraged the zamindars to invest in improving the land.

iv. Since the revenue demand of the state would not be increased the zamindar would benefit from increased production from the land.

v. If any of them failed to fulfill these conditions, he was ousted from his land and the government did not hesitate in putting his zamindari to auction.

Q.4. How was the Mahalwari system different from the Permanent Settlement?

Ans.Permanent Settlement Mahalwari System

i. Permanent Settlement was introduced in Bihar and Bengal I. The system of Mahalwari was introduced in western part of Gengetic Valley, North-West Province, parts of Central India and Punjab

ii. It was introduced in 1793 II. It came into effect in 1822.

iii. The amount to be paid as land revenue was fixed. The government could not enhance the land revenue. III. The amount of land revenue was revised periodically. The government could revise the revenue.

iv. The zamindar had the charge of collecting the revenue.

IV. The charge of collecting the revenue and paying it to the Company was given to the village headman.

Q.5. Give two problems which arose with the new Munro system of fixing revenue.

Ans. The problems created by the Munro system of fixing revenues were:

i. Driven by the desire to increase the income from land, revenue officials (Captain Alexander Read and Thomas Munro) fixed too high a revenue demand. Peasants were unable to pay, ryots fled the countryside, and villagers became deserted in several areas.

ii. Optimistic officials had imagined that the new system would transform the peasants into rich enterprising farmers. But this did not happen.

Q.6. Why were ryots reluctant to grow indigo?

Ans. Ryots were reluctant to grow indigo because:

a) The indigo system was intensely oppressive.

b) Indigo could be cultivated only on fertile lands and these were all already densely populated.

c) Peasants who were initially tempted by the loans soon realized how harsh the system was. The price they got for the indigo they produced was very low and cycle of loans never ended.

d) The planters usually insisted that indigo be cultivated on the best soils in which peasants preferred to cultivate rice.

e) Indigo had deep roots and it exhausted the soil rapidly. After an indigo harvest the land could not be sown with rice.

Q.7. What were the circumstances which led to the eventual collapse of indigo production in Bengal?

Ans.i. In March 1859, thousands of ryots in Bengal refused to grow indigo. As the rebellion spread, ryots refused to pay rents to the planter and attacked indigo factories armed with swords and spears, bows and arrows.

ii. Ryots swore they would no longer take advances to sow indigo nor be bullied by planter’s lathiyals.

iii. The government set up the Indigo Commission to enquire into the system of indigo production. The Commission held the planters guilty and criticized them for the coercive methods they used with indigo cultivators.

iv. The Indigo Commission declared that indigo production was not profitable for ryots. The Commission asked the ryots to fulfill their existing contracts but also told them that they could refuse to produce indigo in future.


Q.8 Find out more about the Champaran Movement and Mahatma Gandhi’s role in it.

Ans. When the indigo production collapsed in Bengal, the European planters of indigo shifted their operations to Bihar. When Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa, a peasant from Bihar persuaded him to visit Champaran and see the plight of the indigo cultivators there.

Role of Mahatma Gandhi: Mahatma Gandhi’s visit in 1917 marked the beginning of the Champaran movement against the indigo planter. He European planter oppressed the peasants. Gandhiji reached Champaran in 1917 to witness the miserable conditions of the peasants. The districts officials ordered him to leave Champaran but he refused to comply the orders and started the Satyagraha.

Q.9. Look into the history of either tea or coffee plantations in India. See how the life of workers in these plantations was similar to or different from that of workers in indigo plantations.

Ans. For Self Study.


Q.10. Imagine a conversation between a planter and a peasant who is being forced to grow indigo. What reasons would the planter give to persuade the peasant? What problems would the peasant point out? Enact their conversation.

Ans. Hints:

i. Why are you forcing me to sign the contract?

ii. Contract should be done on mutual terms and conditions. These should be useful to peasant also. I should get enough amount of money as a salary for my labour and for the work of my other family members.

iii. I require a reasonably good house to live in. There should be a hospital for the workers. All medical facilities should be provided to the laborers. There should be a school, where my children could go to take education. My duty hours should be fixed. On every Saturday should be paid my salary as well as extra allowances for my work.

Land tax should be charged from Zamindars directly. Otherwise, I am not willing to sow indigo. If you or your agent agrees with my terms I will work only for one or two crops.

For next period new and more favourable terms and conditions should be settled. The cost of production should be decided and settled with mutual consultation.

Conclusions for NCERT Solutions Class 8 History Chapter 3

The Academic staff at SWC has provided all of the NCERT Solutions for the Class 8 History Chapter 3 examination. Please be sure to check out our NCERT answers for other topics, such as the NCERT solutions for class 8 mathematics and the NCERT solutions for class 8 science.

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