NCERT Solutions Class 9 History Chapter 2- Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution (As per NEW Syllabus)
The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is an autonomous body of the Indian government that formulates the curricula for schools in India that are governed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and certain state boards. Therefore, students who will be taking the Class 10 tests administered by various boards should consult this NCERT Syllabus in order to prepare for those examinations, which in turn will assist those students to get a passing score.
When working through the exercises in the NCERT textbook, if you run into any type of difficulty or uncertainty, you may use the SWC NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 as a point of reference. While you are reading the theory from the textbook, it is imperative that you always have notes prepared. You should make an effort to understand things from the very beginning so that you may create a solid foundation in the topic. Use the NCERT as your parent book to ensure that you have a strong foundation. After you have finished reading the theoretical section of the textbook, you should go to additional reference books.
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 – Textbook Questions
Q.1. What were the social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905?
Ans. (i) Social condition: The society was dividing into two classes-the privileged and the non-privileged. The privileged class comprised of prosperous and influential people who held almost all the important offices of the state and most of the land was also under their control.
(ii) Economic condition: As there was not ample capital in the country, more than half of the capital investment was made by the foreign investors who were interested only in making huge and quick profits without having any concern for the miserable conditions of the Workers.
The Russian capitalists too, proved to be a source of exploitation of the workers. Whether factories have good working conditions or not, craft units and small workshops also sometimes had 15 hours of working day.
(iii) Political condition: The Russian polity was basically still feudal in nature. Vast tracts of land were held tax free by the clergy and the nobility who also monopolized the high posts in the army and administration.
The new middle class which was slowly emerging in Russia began to make strident demands for some sort of representative government to be formed where access to high posts would be given on the basis of birth.
Administration was also riddled with corruption and was inefficient.
Q.2. In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe before 1917 ?
Ans. (i) most industry was the private property of industrialists. Government supervised large factories to ensure minimum wages and limited hours of work. But factory inspectors could not prevent rules being broken. in craft units and small workshops, the working day was sometimes of 15 hours, compared with 10 or 12 hours in factories. Accommodation varied from rooms to dormitories.
(ii) Workers were a divided social group. Women made up 31 per cent of the factory labor force by 1914, but they were paid less than men. Divisions among workers showed themselves in dress and manners too.
(iii) Despite divisions, workers did unite to strike work when they disagreed with employers about dismissals or work conditions. These strikes took place frequently in the textile mills.
Q.3. Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?
Ans. (i) the revolutionary movement in Russia had been growing when the 1905 Revolution broke out. On 9th January, 1905, a mass of peaceful workers with their wives and children was fired at in St. Petersburg while on its way to the Winter Palace to present a petition to the Tsar. The news of the killings provoked unprecedented disturbances throughout Russia and proved to be a dress rehearsal of the revolution that came in 1917.
(ii) The Tsar took Russia into the First World War. This proved fatal and brought about the final breakdown of the Russian autocracy, By February 1917, 6,00,000 soldiers had been killed in the war. There was widespread discontent throughout the empire as well as in the army. The condition was ripe for a revolution.
(iii) On 12th March, 1917, the capital city of St. Petersburg fell into the hands of the revolutionaries. Soon the revolutionaries controlled Moscow. The Tsar gave up his throne and the first Provisional Government was formed on 15th March, 1917.
Q. 4. Make two lists: one with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders and what the impact of each was on Soviet history,
Ans. A. List of the February Revolution-Events and Effects:
(i) In February 1917, food shortages were deeply felt in the workers’ quarters.
(ii) Parliamentarians wishing to present elected government opposed to the Tsar’s desire to dissolve the Duma.
(iii) On 22nd February, a lock out took place at a factory on the right bank of River Neva.
(iv) On 23rd February, 1917, workers in fifty factories called a strike in sympathy of the factory workers of the River Neva.
(v) In many factories women led the way to strikes. This came to be called the International Women’s Day.
B. Events and Effects of Revolution of October 1917:
(i) As the conflict between the Provisional Government and the Bolsheviks grew, Lenin feared the Provisional Government would setup a dictatorship.
(ii) in September 1917, Lenin started discussions for an uprising against the government. Bolshevik supporters in the arm Soviets and factories were brought together.
(iii) On 16th October, 1917, Lenin persuades the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Part to agree to a socialist seizure of power A Military Revolutionary Committee was appointed by the Soviet under Leon Trotsky to organize the seizure. The date of the event was kept a secret (iv) The uprising began on 24th October Sensing trouble, Prime Minister Kerensky had left the city to summon troops which later seize government offices and arrest ministers.
(v) In the years that followed, the Bolsheviks became the only party to participate in the elections to the All Russian Congress of Soviet which became the Parliament of the country.
In this, we can say that Russia became a one-party state.
Q. 5. What was the main change brought about by the Bolshevik immediately after the October Revolution Ans. The main changes brought about b the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution were:
1. The Congress of Soviets on 8th November 1917 issued a proclamation to all peoples an belligerent states to open negotiations for a jus peace without annexation and indemnities Russia withdrew from the war, though form peace was signed with Germany later, after ceding the territories that Germany demanded as a price for peace.
2. Following the decree on land, the estate of the landlords, the church and the Tsar were confiscated and transferred to peasant’s societies to be allotted to peasant families to be cultivated without hired labor.
3. A Declaration of the Rights of Peoples w issued conferring the right of self-determination upon all nationalities.
4. A new government called the Council of People’s Commissioners, headed by Lenin was formed.
Q.6. Write a few lines to show what you know about :
(ii) The Duma,
(iii) Women workers between 1900 and 1930 (iv) The Liberals.
Ans. (i) Kulaks: It was a name for well to do farmers of Russia. During the period of Stalin to develop modern farms, and run them along industrial lines with machinery, it was considered necessary to eliminate “Kulaks.
(ii) Duma: It was an elected consultative Parliament, which creation was allowed by the Tsar during the 1905 Revolution in Russia.
(iii) (a) Due to industrialization, women began to work in factories. On 22nd February 1917, many women became the leaders in organizing strikes in factories.
(b) This day came to be called as the International Women’s Day.
(c) They joined trade unions and political Organizations. They helped the male workers in both revolutions – The February and October Revolution.
(d) After introduction of the new constitution in USSR the women workers were given equal political, social and economic rights.
(iv) The Liberals: (a) they wanted to change society and wanted a nation which was secular in nature. They also wanted to safeguard the rights of individuals against government.
(b) They believed in an elected parliamentary government but did not believe in Universal Adult Franchise. They believed only men of property should be given the right to vote.
(c) Women, according to them, should not be given the right to vote.
Conclusions of NCERT Solutions History Class 9 Chapter 2
SWC academic staff has developed NCERT answers for this chapter of the ninth-grade SST curriculum. We have solutions prepared for all the NCERT questions of this chapter. The answers, broken down into steps, to all of the questions included in the NCERT textbook’s chapter are provided here. Read this chapter on theory. Be certain that you have read the theory section of this chapter of the NCERT textbook.