NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 6 Peasants and Farmers (As per NEW Syllabus)
The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is an autonomous body of the Indian government that formulates the curricula for schools in India that are governed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and certain state boards. Therefore, students who will be taking the Class 10 tests administered by various boards should consult this NCERT Syllabus in order to prepare for those examinations, which in turn will assist those students to get a passing score.
When working through the exercises in the NCERT textbook, if you run into any type of difficulty or uncertainty, you may use the SWC NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 6 as a point of reference. While you are reading the theory from the textbook, it is imperative that you always have notes prepared. You should make an effort to understand things from the very beginning so that you may create a solid foundation in the topic. Use the NCERT as your parent book to ensure that you have a strong foundation. After you have finished reading the theoretical section of the textbook, you should go to additional reference books.
NCERT Solutions Class 9 History Chapter 6 – (Textbook Solutions)
Q. 1. Explain briefly what the open field system meant to rural people in eighteenth-century, England.
Look at the system from the point of view of. -A rich farmer,
-A peasant woman.
Ans. A rich farmer: When the price of wool went up in the world market the rich farmers wanted to expand wool production to earn profits. So, they began dividing and enclosing common land and building hedges around their holdings to separate their property from that of others. And the villagers were drove out from the common lands and also prevented from entering.
A labourer: A labourer used to live with landowners and helped the masters doing a variety of jobs. But by 1800 this practice was disappearing. A labourer was being paid wages and employed only during harvest time. When landowners tried to increase their profits, they cut the amount they had to spend on their workmen. And thus his work became insecure, employment uncertain, income unstable. For a large part of the year he had no work.
A peasant woman: When the peasants cultivated on the strips of land around the village they lived in a peasant Woman helped him in his work. Besides, this cow keeping, collection of firewood, gleaning, gathering of fruits and berries from the common lands were some other activities of peasant women.
Q. 2. Explain briefly the factors that led to the enclosures in England.
Ans. The factors which led to the enclosures in England are:
(i) Enclosures were necessary to make long-term investments on land and plan crop rotations to improve the soil.
(ii) Enclosures allowed the rich landowners to expand the land under their control and produce more for the market.
Q. 3. Why are threshing machines Opposed by the poor in England?
Ans. The threshing machines were opposed by the poor in England because their income became unstable, their jobs insecure, their livelihood precarious.
Q.4. Who was Captain Swing? What did the name symbolize or represent?
Ans. (i) Captain Swing was a mythic name and used in threatening letters, written by the workmen against the use of threshing machines by rich farmers.
(ii) The name symbolized or represent anger or unhappiness of the labourers against the use of threshing machines by rich farmers or big landowners.
Q. 5. What was the impact of the westward expansion of settlers in the USA?
Ans. (i) When the American settlers move on to the west, America seemed to be a land of promise.
(ii) Its wilderness could be turned into cultivated fields.
(iii) Forest timber could be cut for export, animals hunted for skin, mountains mined for gold and minerals. This was the impact of the westward expansion.
Q. 6. What were the advantages and disadvantages of the use of mechanical harvesting machines in the USA?
Ans. (i) Advantages of the use of mechanical harvesting machines were as under:
(a) The new machines allowed big farmers of the USA to rapidly clear large tracts, break up the soils, remove the grass and prepare the ground for cultivation.
(b) The work could be done quickly and with a minimal number of hands. With power-driven machinery four men could plough, seed and harvest 2000 to 4000 acres of wheat in a season.
(c) They were very helpful to meet the growing demand of the world.
(d) As a result of increased agricultural production, trade and commerce also expanded.
(ii) Disadvantages of such machines were as under:
(a) For the poorer farmers of the USA, machines on new technology brought misery. Many of them bought these machines, imagining that wheat prices would remain high and profits would flow in. If they had no money they borrowed from the banks. Those who borrowed found it difficult to return their debts. Several of the poor farmers deserted their farms and looked for jobs elsewhere.
(b) Use of machines and new technology created unemployment in maximum cases. For unemployed persons it was very difficult to find new jobs. Mechanization had reduced the need for laborers.
(c) And the boom of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries seemed to have come to an end by the mid 1920s. After that even most of the rich farmers faced trouble.
(d) The use of machinery brought the so-called Swing Riots. The laborers and the poor peasants burnt the farmhouses of the landlords and broke a number of threshing machines.
Q. 7. What lessons can we draw from the conversion of the countryside in the USA from a bread basket to a dust bowl?
Ans. (i) A very useful lesson from the conversion of the countryside in the USA from a bread basket to a dust bowl was that one should respect the ecological conditions of each region. One should not go blindly for expansion of agriculture in the maximum land by cutting forest and disturbing eco-balance.
(ii) The expansion of wheat agriculture in the Great Plains created other problems also. In the 1930s, terrifying duststorms began to blow over the southern plains.
This is the lesson that we can draw from the conversion of the countryside in the USA from a bread basket to a dust bowl.
Q. 8. Write a paragraph on why the British insisted on farmers growing opium in India.
Ans. The British used to buy tea from China only by paying in silver coins or bullion which meant outflow of treasure from England. So, they searched for a commodity they could sell in China. And opium served their purpose. Moreover, opium was produced by the farmers on a very low price which the Britishers sell at a high price. And thus they were able to earn enough of revenue from opium. So, the British insisted on farmers growing opium in India.
Q. 9. Why were Indian farmers reluctant to grow opium ?
Ans. Indian farmers were reluctant to grow opium because:
(i) It prevented them from cultivating crops in their lands and they had to grow it in some inferior land where harvests was poor and uncertain.
(ii) For cultivating opium, farmers had to pay rent and lease land from landlords. And the rent charged on good lands was very high.
(iii) The cultivation of opium plant was delicate for which cultivators had to spent long hours nurturing it. As a result they did not have enough time for other crops.
(iv) The price the government paid to the
cultivators for the opium production was very low. It was not at all profitable for cultivators to grow opium at that price.
Conclusions of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 6
SWC academic staff has developed NCERT answers for this chapter of the ninth-grade SST curriculum. We have solutions prepared for all the NCERT questions of this chapter. The answers, broken down into steps, to all of the questions included in the NCERT textbook’s chapter are provided here. Read this chapter on theory. Be certain that you have read the theory section of this chapter of the NCERT textbook.