The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is an autonomous body of the Indian government that formulates the curricula for schools in India that are governed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and certain state boards. Therefore, students who will be taking the Class 10 tests administered by various boards should consult this NCERT Syllabus in order to prepare for those examinations, which in turn will assist those students get a passing score.

When working through the exercises in the NCERT textbook, if you run into any type of difficulty or uncertainty, you may use the swc NCERT Solutions for class 9 as a point of reference. While you are reading the theory form textbook, it is imperative that you always have notes prepared. You should make an effort to understand things from the very beginning so that you may create a solid foundation in the topic. Use the NCERT as your parent book to ensure that you have a strong foundation. After you have finished reading the theoretical section of the textbook, you should go to additional reference books.


Question 1. What do we get from cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables?
Solution :
(i) Cereals provide us with carbohydrates. Also, they are a rich source of energy.
(ii) Pulses give us proteins.
(iii) Fruits and vegetables are a rich source of vitamins and minerals. A small amount of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats are also present in them.

Question 2. How do biotic and abiotic factors affect crop production?
Solution : A variety of biotic factors such as pests, nematodes, diseases, etc. can reduce the net crop production. A pest causes damage to agriculture by feeding on crops. For example, boll weevil is a pest on cotton. It attacks the cotton crop, thereby reducing its yield. Weeds also reduce crop productivity by competing with the main crop for nutrients, light, and space.
Similarly, abiotic factors such as salinity, temperature, etc. affect the net crop production. Some natural calamities such as droughts and floods are unpredictable. Their occurrence has a great impact on crops sometimes, destroying the entire crop.

Question 3. What are the desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvements?
Solution : The desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvements are as follows:
(i) For cereal crops desirable characteristic is dwarfness since such plants will utilise less amount of nutrients.
(ii) For fodder crops desirable characteristics are tallness and profuse branching so that we can obtain more amount of leaves for feeding our animals.

Question 4. What are macro-nutrients and why are they called macronutrients?
Solution : There are sixteen nutrients which are essential for plants. Amongst these thirteen nutrients, six are required in large quantities and are therefore called macronutrients.
Macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur.

Question 5. How do plants get nutrients?
Solution : Nutrients are supplied to plants by air, water and soil.
(i) Manure
(ii) Fertilizer
(i) Manure: is prepared by the decomposition of animal excreta and plant waste so contains large quantities of organic matter and also supplies small quantities of nutrients to the soil that improves soil fertility.
(ii) Fertilizers: are commercially produced in factories to supply nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium that ensures soil fertility in terms of proper dose, time, and observing pre and post-application precautions.

Question 6. Compare the use of manure and fertilizers in maintaining soil fertility.
Solution : Manures increase soil fertility by enriching the soil with organic matter and nutrients as it is prepared by the decomposition of animal excreta and plant wastes. On the other hand, fertilizers are mostly inorganic compounds whose excessive use is harmful to the symbiotic micro-organisms living in soil. Their excessive use also reduces soil fertility. Hence, fertilizers are considered good for only short term use.

Question 7. Which of the following conditions will give the most benefits? Why?
(a) Farmers use high-quality seeds, do not adopt irrigation or use fertilizers.
(b) Farmers use ordinary seeds, adopt irrigation and use fertilizer.
(c) Farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation, use fertilizer and use crop protection measures.
Solution : (c) Farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation, use fertilizer and use crop protection measures.
(i) The use of good quality seeds increases the total crop production. If a farmer is using good quality seeds, then a majority of the seeds will germinate properly, and will grow into a healthy plant.
(ii) Proper irrigation methods improve the water availability to crops.
(iii) Fertilizers ensure healthy growth and development in plants by providing the essential nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, etc.
(iv) Crop protection measures include various methods to control weeds, pests, and infectious agents. If all these necessary measures are taken by a farmer, then the overall production of crops will increase.

Question 8. Why should preventive measures and biological control methods be preferred for protecting crops?
Solution : Prevention is better than cure so is true for plants also. Such preventions involve spraying of herbicides, weedicides, insecticides, pesticides, fungicides etc in the crop field.
Since their excessive use can harm the crop plants and cause pollution so proper seed bed preparation, timely sowing of crops, intercropping and crop rotation are additionally applicable. Other than these biological control methods like use of resistant varieties is highly useful.

Question 9. What factors may be responsible for losses of grains during storage?
Solution : Factors that may be responsible for losses of grains during storage are:
• abiotic factors: Unfavourable conditions of humidity and temperature.
• biotic factors: Insects, rodents, bacteria, fungi etc that feed on grains.

Question 10. Which method is commonly used for improving cattle breeds and why?
Solution : The method of cross breeding is commonly used for improving cattle breeds for example in milch animals Exotic or foreign breeds (for example, Jersey, Brown Swiss) are selected for long lactation periods, while local breeds (for example, Red Sindhi, Sahiwal) show excellent resistance to diseases. The two can be cross-bred to get animals with both the desired qualities.

Question 11. Discuss the implications of the following statement :
“It is interesting to note that poultry is India’s most efficient converter of low fibre food stuff (which is unfit for human consumption) into highly nutritious animal protein food.”
Solution : Under poultry the birds kept are fed on agricultural waste material and broken grains etc which are not useful for humans but those birds consuming such waste provide us with eggs and meat. It is highly nutritious animal protein food hence the statement made is quite appropriate.

Question 12. What management practices are common in dairy and poultry farming?
Solution : The management practices that are common in dairy and poultry farming are:
• food requirements
• Proper cleaning and shelter facilities
• Protection from unfavorable climatic conditions and diseases.
• Protection from pests.

Question 13. What are the differences between broilers and layers and in their management?
Solution : Layersare meant for egg production, whereas broilers are meant for poultry meat. Nutritional, environmental, and housing conditions required by broilers are different from those required by egg layers. A broiler chicken, for their proper growth, requires vitamin rich supplements especially vitamin A and K. Also, their diet includes protein rich food and enough fat. They also require extra care and maintenance to increase their survival rate in comparison to egg layers.

Question 14. How are fish obtained?
Solution : There are two ways of obtaining fish. They can be obtained by:
(a) capture fishing: It is the way of obtaining fish from their natural resources (rivers, lakes, oceans).
(b) culture fishery: It is also known as fish farming where selected fishes are reared and bred.

Question 15. What are the advantages of composite fish culture?
Solution : Composite fish culture has following advantages:
• Both local and imported fish species can be used in such systems.
• Due to non-competitive nature of selected fishes food available in all the parts of the water reservoir is used.
• Increases the fish yield from the water reservoir (intensive fish farming).

Question 16. What are the desirable characters of bee varieties suitable for honey production?
Solution : The desirable characters of bee varieties suitable for honey production are:
• high honey collection capacity.
• they must sting less.
• They should stay in a given beehive for long periods, and breed very well.

Question 17. What is pasturage and how is it related to honey production?
Solution : Pasturage refers to the flowers available to the bees for nectar and pollen collection. The value or quality of honey depends upon the pasturage. Along with this the kind of flowers available will determine the taste of the honey.

Question 18. Explain any one method of crop production which ensures high yield.
Solution : To ensure high yield various cropping patterns can be very useful. The cropping patterns to be mentioned here are:
(i) Mixed cropping
(ii) Inter cropping
(iii) Crop rotation
(i) Mixed cropping: is growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land, for example, wheat + gram, or wheat +mustard, or groundnut + sunflower. This reduces risk and gives some insurance against failure of one of the crops.
(ii) Inter-cropping:. is growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same field in a definite pattern (as shown below). The crops are selected such that their nutrient requirements are different. This ensures maximum utilisation of the nutrients supplied, and also prevents pests and diseases from spreading to all the plants belonging to one crop in a field for example, soyabean + maize, or finger millet (bajra) + cowpea (lobia).
(iii) Crop rotation: is growing of different crops on a piece of land in a pre-planned succession. Depending upon the duration, crop rotation is done for different crop combinations. The availability of moisture and irrigation facilities decide the choice of the crop to be cultivated after one harvest. If crop rotation is done properly then two or three crops can be grown in a year with good harvests.

Question 19. Why are manure and fertilizers used in fields?
Solution : Manure helps in enriching soil with nutrients and organic matter and increasing soil fertility. The bulk of organic matter in manure helps in improving the soil structure.
Fertilizers are used to ensure good vegetative growth (leaves, branches and flowers), giving rise to healthy plants by providing specific nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Question 20. What are the advantages of inter-cropping and crop rotation?
Solution : Inter-cropping and crop rotation both play an important role in increasing the yield of crops. Inter-cropping helps in preventing pests and diseases to spread throughout the field. It also increases soil fertility, whereas crop rotation prevents soil depletion, increases soil fertility, and reduces soil erosion. Both these methods reduce the need for fertilizers. It also helps in controlling weeds and controls the growth of pathogens and pests in crops.

Question 21. What is genetic manipulation? How is it useful in agricultural practices?
Solution : Plant breeding or hybridisation method that involves crossing two different plant varieties to obtain a new and better variety is called genetic manipulation.
In agricultural practices to reduce the application of insecticides and fungicides or even fertilizers such varieties are being prepared that are:
• high yielding
• pest resistant
• resistant to environmental stress
• don’t need fertilizers for good growth
All these features help not only to improve quality and quantity of products but also reduces chances of environmental pollution.

Question 22. How do storage grain losses occur?
Solution : There are various biotic and abiotic factors responsible for the storage grain losses:
• biotic factors: Insects, rodents, bacteria, fungi etc that feed on grains.
• abiotic factors: Unfavourable conditions of humidity and temperature.

Question 23. How do good animal husbandry practices benefit farmers?
Solution : Animal husbandry is the scientific management of animal livestock. It includes various aspects such as feeding, breeding and disease control.
As the population increases and as living standards increase, the demand for milk, eggs and meat is also going up. Also, the growing awareness of the need for proper treatment of livestock has brought in new limitations in livestock farming. Thus, livestock production also needs to be improved. This improvement can be brought about by good animal husbandry practices like providing good food and preventing diseases in the cattles that will benefit farmers to obtain better quality and quantity products.

Question 24. What are the benefits of cattle farming?
Solution : Cattle farming has dual benefits:
(i)Draught animals for farm labour (males)i.e. for agricultural work such as tilling, irrigation and carting.
(ii) Milch animals (dairy animals) those are milk producing females.

Question 25. For increasing production, what is common in poultry, fisheries and bee-keeping?
Solution : For increasing production, steps that are common in poultry, fisheries and bee-keeping are as follows :
• good varieties/breeds are used.
• good nutritious food is provided.
• hygienic conditions/cleanliness is taken care of

Question 26. How do you differentiate between capture fishing, Mari culture and aquaculture?
Solution :

Capture fishingMaricultureAquaculture
It is the method of obtaining fishes from natural resources.It is the culture of marine fishes for commercial use.It involves the production of aquatic animals that are of high economic value such as prawns, lobsters, fishes, crabs, etc.


SWC academic staff has developed NCERT answers for this chapter of the ninth grade science curriculum. We have solutions prepared for all the ncert questions of this chapter. The answers, broken down into steps, to all of the questions included in the NCERT textbook’s chapter are provided here. Read this chapter on theory. Be certain that you have read the theory section of this chapter of the NCERT textbook and that you have learnt the formulas for the chapter that you are studying.

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